From an evolutionary perspective, love and caring may have been adaptive over the millennia. Female reproductive value is determined not only on the basis of physical appearance but also on the basis of apparent health. Some evolutionary psychologists hold that male love acts involved gift-giving and other signs of willingness and ability to invest resources. Female love acts involved appearing healthy, youthful, attractive, and available for reproduction. Other evolutionary psychologists point out that these traits transcend gender and are culture-specific. And in some cultures, both genders can express both types of love. If love and caring translate into long-term health and well-being, the social and economic implications are enormous. It may be financially profitable to be loving and caring, because of the reduction in medical bills. Focusing of love and caring does not only help the person who receives care. It also helps the person who gives the love and the care. In other words, love is good for your health. If you give love and if you receive love, you are more likely to remain healthy.